Many countries that have an electronic identity (eID) system attach the eID chip to a classical identity card. From a historical perspective this is a natural approach (eIDs have evolved from the electronic or biometric passports). However, as a consequence, people can only own at most a single eID, and a significant group of citizens are excluded from owning an eID at all. This severely affects the coverage and inclusiveness of eID applications, and even prevents the implementation of certain types of eID applications.

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